作者归档:test123

test123

2019年11月21日

Penghu Voters Reject Casino Proposal Customers of Penghu, a remote Taiwanese area string again chosen against prospective building of casino resorts in the region, this time by an daunting majority. In accordance with the total outcomes revealed by the Penghu district election board, 81percent of this votes shed compared the idea, and simply 19% chosen it.

Around 100,000 people are presently surviving in the region. Of those, 83,469 were entitled to officially voice their advice from the thing. But, merely 40% associated with county’s people ended up to choose. Numbers revealed that 26,598 Penghu citizens chosen from the casino offer and 6,210 recognized it.

In 2009, Taiwan’s authorities implemented changes that are certain the Offshore countries Development Act that allowed for all the place of casino resorts on outlying islands, if customers approved that by way of a referendum vote.

Shortly after the operate is amended casino-online-australia.net, Penghu owners comprise asked to choose whether or not they recommended the thought of their part are the place to find a casino organization. Turnout was larger while in the 2009 vote. Adverse votes prevailed, even though the margin had not been because intimidating as the only reported after that season’s referendum.

Following this day’s vote, the ruling popular advanced Party said that Penghu district people ‘have found their unique will that is collective. The party additionally noticed that it might assist the isolated region boost the tourism and create much-needed work by creating some other type of developing, the one that would carry Penghu own traits. 继续阅读

test123

2019年11月21日

Given up so far as the AL Central race moves, the more Cleveland Indians can become legitimate contenders for a fourth consecutive division title when they host the Minnesota Twins this weekend.
It’s such a critical series, we are like the Friday and Saturday matchups within our free MLB picks background, and Game 1 discovers Jake Odorizzi (14-6, 3.60) carrying on Cleveland newcomer Aaron Civale (3-3, 1.93). The Twins started as slight underdogs ahead of the pendulum swung the other means to make them small favorites -operate complete priced to the’over.’
Until they come home to their final homestand of the season against the White Sox and 27, That is a quick 3-game road excursion for the Twins. They dropped two of three to five these Indians from the previous series, and finished a homestand that was 2-4 as +115 underdogs in Bovada.
Odorizzi 3 starts have been won by minnesota , such as the dubya from the Cleveland series last weekend. The 29-year-old allowed two runs while hitting the Twins prevailing 5-3 to a -135 money line, 10 and pitched into the sixth. He won his only start at Cleveland this year, also is 2-2 with a 4.44 ERA in six career missions around the mound.
Cleveland skipper Terry Francona faces a dilemma in the show with nearer Brad H anticipated to be more rested for a couple of days. Hand has struggled recently, posting a 5.68 ERA since the All-Star break in contrast to 2.17 before, and only experienced an MRI on his left arm. Francona stated Hand’s accessibility is unknown heading into Friday’s game, although the outcomes of the MRI were clean.
Even the Indians had off after a 5-1 road trip that began by taking two of three at Minnesota prior to crossing the Angels. Civale has deserved greater than his 3-3 record (Indians 4-4 within his 8 starts), but Cleveland hitters combined to score just two runs in 3 if the team’s losses together with him on the mound. The newcomer has confronted the Twins before, both excursions coming from Minnesota, and held them to just two runs and one homer in 11 innings.
The Indians could claim their fourth consecutive season win with one win this weekend. Cleveland has a 9-7 lead going into Friday’s fracas, together with the six competitions at Progressive Field while 2-4 O/U has run split between the two clubs. The’beneath’ has arrived home a winner in 11 of their 16 matchups, one match pushing a 10-run total.
The chance for a passing thunderstorm interrupting things increases to the night hours, and there’s a 10-15 mph ton (outside to left) also on the docket. I’ll stick to the’under’ tendency between the two clubs at the show opener.
Free MLB Select: Under 91/2 (+100) in Heritage
Willie’s MLB season selects record: 105-111-5 (-0.55units)

Read more here: http://taxfizat.com/?p=11411

test123

2019年11月21日

As a performance saw in Old Trafford Salford 23-6 st Helens clinched their first Super League Grand success on Saturday since 2014.??
Find out how each participant rated in the event below…
Lachlan Coote 8/10: Defensively audio, collecting quite a few bombs and faultless kicking, dividing the articles together with five attempts.
Tommy Makinson 7/10: Seemed inhibited after landing awkwardly on his left arm but split the articles using a 40-metre drop goal.
Kevin Naiqama 7/10: Place the tone for Saints dominance in the first quarter and never let up in strength.
Mark Percival 7/10: Made a moment of magic by racing on to his grubber for its attempt that was telling.
Regan Grace 6/10: The wiry winger though he had been a pedestrian for its next half troubled Salford with his pace and his slipperiness.
Jonny Lomax 6/10: A couple of breaks apart, a quiet night for the Saints stand-off.
Theo Fages 6/10: As with Lomax, the scrum-half performed but failed to set the pulses racing.
Alex Walmsley 8/10: Driving run along with astute short pass led to the opening try of the match. Difficult to block the powerhouse when he puts on a roll.
James Roby 7/10: A few footwork allowed a deft interior pass to Zeb Taia to get Saints try. Remains the standout hooker of the league.
Luke Thompson 8/10: A screen from the England always keeping Salford on the foot.
Zeb Taia 7/10: Still another performance from the rower, who capped a screen with an attempt.
Dominique Peyroux 6/10: Industrious without creating a lasting impression sufficient.
Morgan Knowles 7/10: Use a little gap after amassing Walmsleys short pass to break the deadlock following a quarter of an 30, in Salfords defence.
Interchanges
Maintaining Saints on the front foot, louie McCarthy-Scarsbrook 7/10: Produced an impact from the bench.
Kyle Amor 7/10: The veteran may not be first choice but he didnt let anybody down here.
Jack Ashworth 6/10 blessed to avoid punishment after looking to create contact Krisnan Inu.
Aaron Smith 6/10 and fortunate when pushing a secret, to avoid giving away a penalty on his try-line Gil Dudson knock .
Niall Evalds 6/10: Not much of a risk going forward however defensively solid.
Ken Sio 5/10: His inability to collect a top ballunder a stress, led to Saints second try of the evening.
Kris Welham 6/10: Showed plenty of effort but faded as the match wore on.
Jake Bibby 7/10: Coolly gathered Hastings pass get Salford back to the competition and to dive .
Krisnan Inu 6/10: although the brunt of a few thick tackles but refused to wilt.
Tuimoala Lolohea 7/10: Considering that the impetus to get Salfords first-half fightback, after an jinking run was chalked off even if his try.
Jackson Hastings 7/10: the Man of Steel of Super League supplied an inch-perfect overhaul for Bibbys try however his large balls lacked penetration.
Lee Mossop 6/10: Dropped the ball deep in his own half minutes inviting some strain.
Logan Tomkins 6/10: his obstruction contributed to the try being scrubbed while he lacked the inventiveness of Saints counterpart Roby since Salford of Lolohea.
Gil Dudson 6/10: Unnecessarily caught Thompson large, causing a penalty which moved Saints.
Josh Jones 7/10: Enthusiastic and prepared, this was not the way the rower could have wanted to sign off by the Red Devils.
George Griffin 6/10: Gave away a clumsy penalty early on but improved.
Tyrone McCarthy 6/10: Drove Salford at every opportunity.
Interchanges
Joey Lussick 7/10: Sensational 40/20 with a quarter of the hour gave Salford trust but they werent able to capitalise.
Mark Flanagan 5/10: Struggling to make a belief.
Adam Walker 6/10: Unfortunate to be penalised with Salford in a place in the second half.
Greg Burke 6/10: Showed plenty of heart since the match got away from Salford.

Read more here: http://www.chrisrun.com/?p=18282

test123

2019年11月21日

St Helens clinched their first Super League Grand final success on Saturday because 2014 as a classy performance saw at Old Trafford off Salford 23-6.??
Find out how each individual player rated out of the occasion below…
Lachlan Coote 8/10: Defensively audio, kicking, and faultless collecting several bombs , dividing the posts with all five attempts.
Tommy Makinson 7/10: Seemed inhibited on his left arm in the second half but divide the articles using a drop objective.
Kevin Naiqama 7/10: Place the tone Saints dominance in the first quarter with a hit Lee Mossop and never let up in intensity.
Mark Percival 7/10: Made a moment of magic by rushing on to his own grubber for the third try.
Regan Grace 6/10: The wiry winger troubled Salford with his speed and his slipperiness but he was a digital pedestrian for its next half.
Jonny Lomax 6/10: A couple of breaks apart, a relatively quiet night for the Saints stand-off.
Theo Fages 6/10: Like Lomax, the scrum-half performed efficiently but didnt put the pulses racing.
Alex Walmsley 8/10: short pass along with Driving run led to the try of the game. Difficult to block when he receives on a roll the powerhouse prop.
James Roby 7/10: Some footwork allowed a deft inside pass to Zeb Taia for Saints attempt. Remains the standout hooker of the league.
Luke Thompson 8/10: A screen from the England international, constantly keeping Salford on the back foot.
Zeb Taia 7/10: Still another performance in the rower, that capped an screen with a try.
Dominique Peyroux 6/10: Industrious sufficient without creating a lasting impression.
Morgan Knowles 7/10: Use a gap in Salfords defence after amassing Walmsley pass to break the deadlock.
Interchanges
Maintaining Saints on front, louie McCarthy-Scarsbrook 7/10: Made an impact from the bench.
Kyle Amor 7/10: The veteran might not be first choice but he did not let anyone down here.
Jack Ashworth 6/10 fortunate to avoid punishment after appearing to make contact Krisnan Inu.
Aaron Smith 6/10 and blessed to avoid giving a penalty away when pushing a secret Gil Dudson knock .
Niall Evalds 6/10: Not much of a risk going forward however defensively sound.
Ken Sio 5/10: his inability to assemble a ball under some strain, directed to Saints second attempt of the evening.
Kris Welham 6/10: Showed lots of endeavour but faded as the game wore on.
Jake Bibby 7/10: Coolly gathered Hastings pass receive back Salford to the contest and to dive .
Krisnan Inu 6/10: Bore the brunt of a couple of thick tackles but refused to wilt.
Tuimoala Lolohea 7/10: Provided the impetus for Salfords first-half fightback, after an jinking conduct was chalked off even if his attempt.
Jackson Hastings 7/10: Super Leagues Man of Steel supplied an overhaul for Bibbys try however his high balls lacked penetration.
Lee Mossop 6/10: Dropped the ball deep in his own half minutes after kick-off, inviting some pressure from Saints.
Logan Tomkins 6/10: his obstruction headed to the attempt being hammered while he lacked the inventiveness of Saints counterpart Roby as Salford of Lolohea.
Gil Dudson 6/10: Unnecessarily caught Thompson large, resulting in a penalty which moved Saints 14 points ahead.
Josh Jones 7/10: prepared and Enthusiastic, this was not how the next rower would have desired to sign off from the Red Devils.
George Griffin 6/10: Gave away a clumsy penalty early on but enhanced.
Tyrone McCarthy 6/10: Drove Salford at every opportunity.
Interchanges
Joey Lussick 7/10: Sensational 40/20 using a quarter of an hour gave Salford hope but they could not capitalise.
Mark Flanagan 5/10: Struggling to generate a impression.
Adam Walker 6/10: Unfortunate to be amalgamated with Salford in a place early.
Greg Burke 6/10 lots of heart since the game got away from Salford.

Read more here: http://www.chrisrun.com/?p=18282

test123

2019年11月21日

St Helens clinched their first Super League Grand final success because 2014 as a performance saw at Old Trafford.??
Find out how every individual player rated out of the occasion below…
Lachlan Coote 8/10: Defensively noise, collecting a number of bombs and faultless kicking, dividing the posts with all five attempts.
Tommy Makinson 7/10: Seemed inhibited after landing awkwardly on his left arm in the second half but split the articles using a 40-metre drop goal.
Kevin Naiqama 7/10: Place the tone for Saints dominance in the first quarter rather than let up in intensity.
Mark Percival 7/10: Made a moment of magic by racing to his own grubber for the telling third attempt.
Regan Grace 6/10: The winger bothered Salford with his pace and his slipperiness though he had been a digital pedestrian for the next half.
Jonny Lomax 6/10: A couple of straight breaks apart, a night for the Saints stand-off.
Theo Fages 6/10: Like Lomax, the scrum-half performed but didnt put the pulses racing.
Alex Walmsley 8/10: short pass along with Driving run resulted in the opening try of the match. Difficult to stop when he gets on a roster, the powerhouse .
James Roby 7/10: A few smart footwork let a deft interior pass to Zeb Taia for Saints second attempt. Remains the standout hooker of the league.
Luke Thompson 8/10: A display from the England international keeping Salford on the rear foot.
Zeb Taia 7/10: Another spirited performance from the rower, that capped an all-action display with a try.
Dominique Peyroux 6/10: Industrious without making a lasting impression enough.
Morgan Knowles 7/10: Use a gap in the defence following collecting Walmsleys short pass to break the deadlock of Salford.
Interchanges
Keeping Saints on the front foot, louie McCarthy-Scarsbrook 7/10: Produced an impact off the bench.
Kyle Amor 7/10: The veteran may not be first choice but he didnt let anybody down here.
Jack Ashworth 6/10 fortunate after looking to create head-to-head contact to avoid punishment.
Aaron Smith 6/10 and fortunate when forcing a secret, to prevent giving away a penalty on his try-line Gil Dudson knock .
Niall Evalds 6/10: Not much of a danger going.
Ken Sio 5/10: His inability to gather a large ballunder certain stress, directed to Saints second try of the night.
Kris Welham 6/10: Showed lots of endeavour but faded as the match wore on.
Jake Bibby 7/10: Coolly gathered Hastings pass receive Salford back and to dive over.
Krisnan Inu 6/10: Bore the brunt of a few heavy tackles but refused to wilt.
Tuimoala Lolohea 7/10: Provided the impetus to Salford fightback, after an jinking run was chalked off, even though his attempt.
Jackson Hastings 7/10: the Man of Steel of Super League provided an pass for Bibbys try however his balls that are high lacked penetration.
Lee Mossop 6/10: Dropped the ball deep in his own half moments inviting some early pressure from Saints.
Logan Tomkins 6/10: His obstruction directed to Loloheas attempt being hammered while he uttered the inventiveness of both Saints counterpart Roby as Salford subsided after the interval.
Gil Dudson 6/10: Unnecessarily captured Thompson high, resulting in a penalty which moved Saints.
Josh Jones 7/10: prepared and Enthusiastic, this wasnt the way the Hull-bound second rower could have desired to sign off from the Red Devils.
George Griffin 6/10: Gave away a penalty that is clumsy early on but enhanced thereafter.
Tyrone McCarthy 6/10: Drove Salford ahead at every chance.
Interchanges
Joey Lussick 7/10: Sensational 40/20 using a quarter of an hour gave Salford hope but they werent able to capitalise.
Mark Flanagan 5/10: Struggling to generate a belief.
Adam Walker 6/10: Unfortunate to be penalised in the second half with Salford at an adequate place.
Greg Burke 6/10 lots of heart as the match gained from Salford.

Read more here: http://www.chrisrun.com/?p=18282

test123

2019年11月21日

As a classy performance saw at Old Trafford st Helens clinched their first Super League Grand success on Saturday since 2014.??
Figure out how every participant rated from the occasion below…
Lachlan Coote 8/10: Defensively sound, faultless, and amassing a number of bombs kicking, splitting the articles together with five attempts.
Tommy Makinson 7/10: Seemed inhibited after landing awkwardly on his left arm in the second half but split the articles using a drop objective.
Kevin Naiqama 7/10: Set the tone Saints dominance in the first quarter using a hefty hit Lee Mossop and never let up in intensity.
Mark Percival 7/10: Produced a moment of magic from racing to his grubber for the telling third try.
Regan Grace 6/10: The winger though he had been a digital pedestrian for the next half, bothered Salford with his pace and his slipperiness.
Jonny Lomax 6/10: A couple of breaks apart, a night to the Saints stand-off.
Theo Fages 6/10: Like Lomax, the scrum-half performed but failed to set the pulses racing.
Alex Walmsley 8/10: pass that is astute along with Driving run led to the opening try of the game. Difficult to halt when he gets on a roster, the powerhouse .
James Roby 7/10: A few footwork allowed a deft interior pass to Zeb Taia to get Saints try. Remains the standout hooker of the league.
Luke Thompson 8/10: A tireless screen from the England international, always maintaining Salford on the foot.
Zeb Taia 7/10: Another performance from the rower, who capped a display.
Dominique Peyroux 6/10: Industrious enough without creating a lasting impression.
Morgan Knowles 7/10: Took advantage of a gap following collecting Walmsley pass to break the deadlock following a quarter of an 30, in Salfords defence.
Interchanges
Louie McCarthy-Scarsbrook 7/10: Made an impact off the bench Saints on the foot.
Kyle Amor 7/10: The veteran might not be first choice but he did not let anybody down here.
Jack Ashworth 6/10: Maybe blessed after looking to make contact Krisnan Inu to avoid punishment.
Blessed when forcing a key to prevent giving away a penalty on his Gil Dudson and aaron Smith 6/10 knock .
Niall Evalds 6/10: Not much of a risk going.
Ken Sio 5/10: his inability to gather a ball that is high , albeit under certain pressure, directed to Saints second try of the evening.
Kris Welham 6/10: Showed lots of endeavour but faded as the game wore on.
Jake Bibby 7/10: Coolly gathered Hastings pass get back Salford to the competition and to dive .
Krisnan Inu 6/10: Bore the brunt of a couple of heavy tackles but refused to wilt.
Tuimoala Lolohea 7/10: Provided the impetus for the first-half fightback of Salford, after an ingenious jinking run was chalked off, even though his try.
Jackson Hastings 7/10: Super Leagues Man of Steel supplied an inch-perfect overhaul for Bibbys try however his balls lacked penetration.
Lee Mossop 6/10: Dropped the ball deep in his own half minutes after kick-off, enticing some early pressure.
Logan Tomkins 6/10: his obstruction headed to Loloheas attempt while he uttered the inventiveness of Saints counterpart Roby since Salford subsided after the 28, being scrubbed.
Gil Dudson 6/10: Unnecessarily captured Thompson high, leading to a punishment that moved Saints 14 points ahead.
Josh Jones 7/10: Enthusiastic and prepared, this was not the way the next rower could have desired to sign off by the Red Devils.
George Griffin 6/10: Gave away a clumsy penalty early on but enhanced.
Tyrone McCarthy 6/10: Drove Salford at every chance.
Interchanges
Joey Lussick 7/10: Sensational 40/20 with a quarter of an hour Salford hope but they werent able to capitalise.
Mark Flanagan 5/10: Struggling to make a belief.
Adam Walker 6/10: Unfortunate to be penalised in the second half with Salford at a decent position.
Greg Burke 6/10 lots of heart as the match gained from Salford.

Read more here: http://www.chrisrun.com/?p=18282

test123

2019年11月21日

Harry Winks admits it has been hard to observe around as England reached the semi-finals of finals.
The Tottenham midfielder dropped out on the run prior to getting fit and starring last year.
Fitness problems followed closely – even though beginning Tottenham’s Champions League defeat – England manager Gareth Southgate chose to not incorporate the 23-year-old within his Nations League finals group in June.
But after beginning the season back at the Spurs side, Winks was recalled to the England squad for the upcoming European Qualifiers from Kosovo and Bulgaria.
“Yes, I spoke to the gaffer the week prior to the [Champions League] closing,” he responded when asked if he understood why he was left out of this Nations League squad.
“He called me and gave me his perspectives. I completely respect the gaffer’s decision, I was out for a couple weeks following an operation and he had to name the squad before the Champions League [closing ].
“So I totally understand his thinking. My thinking has been Tottenham – to find fit, to get in that Champions League team.
“Then obviously later it might have been an honor to go with England, but for different reasons I totally understand the gaffer did so. I respect his decision.
“It’s always difficult to watch any football you are part of when you’re not involved – particularly the World Cup.
“First and foremost I was an England fan, I needed us to do this nicely, but it is everybody’s dream to play for their states, so to have missed that has been challenging.
“And also to miss from the Nations League was tough. But that’s football. Folks make decisions and it is part and parcel of moving on.
“We’ve got the Euros to look ahead, so hopefully I can stay fit and perform a part in this”

Read more here: http://epcocbetongtruyenthanh.com/ufc-234-whittaker-vs-gastelum-odds-and-predictions/

test123

2019年11月21日

This simple question continues to generate controversy. Takamasa Takahashi, a physicist at St. Norbert College in De Pere, Wis., attempts a definitive answer:
“Cold water does not boil faster than warm water. The rate of heating of a liquid is dependent upon the magnitude of the temperature difference between the liquid and its surroundings (the flame on the stove, for instance). As a result, cold water will be consuming heat quicker while it’s still cold; once it gets up to the warmth of warm water, the heating rate slows down and from that point it takes as long to deliver it to a boil since the water which was hot to start with. As it requires cold water a while to reach the temperature of hot water, cold water obviously takes longer to boil than warm water does. There may be some psychological impact at play; chilly water starts boiling earlier than you might expect because of the aforementioned greater heat absorption rate when water is colder.
“To the first part of the question–‘Does hot water freeze faster than cold water?’ –the response is’Not generally, but possibly under certain conditions.’ It takes 540 calories to vaporize 1 g of water, whereas it takes 100 calories to bring 1 gram of liquid water from 0 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees C. When water is hotter than 80 degrees C, the rate of cooling with rapid vaporization is quite high because each evaporating g attracts at least 540 calories from the water left behind. This is a very large amount of heat as well as the 1 calorie per Celsius degree that’s drawn from every gram of water that cools by regular thermal conduction.
“It all depends on how fast the cooling occurs, and it turns out that hot water will not freeze before chilly water but will freeze until lukewarm water. Water at 100 degrees C, by way of instance, will freeze until water warmer than 60 degrees C but not until water cooler than 60 degrees C. This phenomenon is particularly evident when the surface region that cools by rapid evaporation is substantial compared with the total amount of water involved, like when you wash a car with warm water on a cold winter day. [For reference, consider Conceptual Physics, by Paul G. Hewitt (HarperCollins, 1993).]
“Another situation in which warm water may freeze quicker is when a bowl of cold water and a pan of hot water of equal mass are set in a freezer . There’s the effect of evaporation mentioned above, as well as the thermal contact with an freezer shelf will cool the base part of the body of water. If water is cold enough, near four degrees C (the temperature at which water is densest), then near-freezing water at the base will rise into the surface. Convection currents will continue until the entire body of water is 0 degrees C, at which point all the water finally freezes. If the water is hot, cooled water in the base is thicker than the warm water on top, so no convection will happen and the bottom part begins freezing while the top remains warm. This effect, combined with the evaporation effect, may create hot water freeze faster than cold water sometimes. In this case, of course, the freezer will probably have worked harder during the specified amount of time, extracting more heat from warm water.”
Robert Ehrlich of George Mason University, in Fairfax, Va., adds to some of the things made by Takahashi:
“There are two methods by which warm water could freeze faster than cold water. One way [clarified in Jearl Walker’s book The Flying Circus of Physics (Wiley, 1975)] is determined by the fact that hot water evaporates faster, so if you began with equivalent masses of warm and cold water, then there will soon be of the hot water to freeze, and hence it would hamper the chilly water and freeze first, because the lesser the mass, the briefer the freezing time. Another way it may happen (in the event of a flat-bottomed dish of water set in a freezer) is when the hot water melts the ice under the base of the dish, leading to a better thermal contact once it refreezes.”

Read more here: http://www.chrisrun.com/?p=18272

test123

2019年11月21日

This question continues to generate controversy. Takamasa Takahashi, a physicist at St. Norbert College in De Pere, Wis., attempts a definitive response:
“Cold water doesn’t boil faster than hot water. The rate of heating of a liquid depends on the size of the temperature difference between the liquid and its surroundings (the fire on the stove, for instance). As a result, cold water will be consuming heat quicker while it’s still cold; once it gets up to the warmth of warm water, the heating rate slows down and from there it takes just as long to deliver it to a boil since the water that was hot to start with. Because it takes cold water a while to make it to the temperature of hot water, cold water clearly takes longer to boil than warm water does. There can be some psychological effect at play; cold water starts boiling earlier than one might expect because of the aforementioned greater heat absorption rate when water is colder.
“To the first part of the question–‘Does hot water freeze faster than cold water?’ –the answer is’Not usually, but maybe under specific conditions.’ It takes 540 calories to vaporize 1 gram of water, whereas it takes 100 calories to bring 1 gram of liquid water from 0 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees C. When water is hotter than 80 degrees C, the rate of cooling by rapid vaporization is quite high because every evaporating g attracts at least 540 calories in the water left behind. This is a really large quantity of heat as well as the 1 calorie per Celsius degree that’s drawn from every gram of water that cools by routine thermal conduction.
“It all depends on how fast the cooling occurs, and it turns out that hot water will not freeze until chilly water but will freeze until lukewarm water. Water at 100 degrees C, for instance, will freeze before water warmer than 60 degrees C but not before water cooler than 60 degrees C. This phenomenon is particularly evident when the surface area which cools by accelerated evaporation is substantial compared with the total amount of water involved, like if you wash a vehicle with warm water on a cold winter day. [For reference, consider Conceptual Physics, by Paul G. Hewitt (HarperCollins, 1993).]
“Another situation where warm water may freeze quicker is when a bowl of cold water along with a pan of warm water of equivalent mass are set in a freezer . There is the impact of evaporation mentioned above, as well as the thermal contact with the freezer shelf will cool the bottom region of the entire body of water. If water is chilly, near four degrees C (the temperature at which water is densest), subsequently near-freezing water at the base increases into the top. Convection currents will continue until the entire body of water is 0 degrees C, at which time all the water finally freezes. If the water is hot, cooled water at the base is thicker than the warm water on top, so no convection will happen and the bottom part begins freezing while the surface is still warm. This effect, together with the evaporation effect, may make hot water freeze faster than cold water in some cases. In cases like this, of course, the freezer will have worked harder throughout the given time period, extracting more heat from hot water.”
Robert Ehrlich of George Mason University, in Fairfax, Va., adds to some of the points made by Takahashi:
“There are two methods by which hot water can freeze faster than cold water. 1 way [described in Jearl Walker’s book The Flying Circus of Physics (Wiley, 1975)] is determined by the fact that hot water disappears faster, so if you started with equal masses of hot and cold water, then there will soon be of the warm water to freeze, and hence it would overtake the chilly water and freeze first, since the lesser the bulk, the shorter the freezing time. Another way it may occur (in the case of a flat-bottomed dish of water placed in a freezer) is when the hot water melts the ice below the bottom of the dish, then resulting in a superior thermal contact when it refreezes.”

Read more here: http://www.chrisrun.com/?p=18272

test123

2019年11月21日

This seemingly straightforward question continues to generate controversy. Takamasa Takahashi, a physicist at St. Norbert College in De Pere, Wis., attempts a definitive answer:
“Cold water doesn’t boil quicker than hot water. The rate of heating of a liquid depends on the size of the temperature difference between the liquid and its surroundings (the fire on the stove, for example ). As a result, cold water will be absorbing heat faster while it’s still cold; once it gets up to the temperature of hot water, the heating rate slows down and from that point it takes just as long to bring it to a boil since the water that was hot to start with. Because it takes cold water a while to reach the temperature of hot water, cold water obviously takes longer to boil than warm water does. There can be some psychological effect at play; cold water starts boiling earlier than you might expect due to the aforementioned higher heat absorption speed when water is colder.
“To the first part of the question–‘Does hot water freeze faster than cold water?’ –the response is’Not generally, but maybe under certain conditions.’ It requires 540 calories to vaporize 1 gram of water, whereas it requires 100 calories to deliver 1 gram of liquid water from 0 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees C. When water is hotter than 80 degrees C, the rate of cooling by rapid vaporization is very high because each evaporating gram attracts at least 540 calories from the water left behind. This is a very large amount of heat as well as the one calorie per Celsius degree that is drawn from every gram of water that cools by regular thermal conduction.
“It all is dependent upon how quickly the cooling occurs, and it ends up that hot water will not freeze until cold water but will freeze until lukewarm water. Water at 100 degrees C, by way of instance, will freeze before water warmer than 60 degrees C but not until water cooler than 60 degrees C. This phenomenon is particularly evident once the surface area that cools by rapid evaporation is substantial compared with the amount of water required, like when you wash a car with warm water on a chilly winter day. [For reference, consider Conceptual Physics, by Paul G. Hewitt (HarperCollins, 1993).]
“Another situation where hot water may freeze faster is when a bowl of cold water along with a pan of warm water of equivalent mass are placed in a freezer compartment. There’s the impact of evaporation mentioned above, and also the thermal contact with the freezer will cool the base region of the body of water. If water is cold enough, close to four degrees C (the temperature at which water is densest), then near-freezing water in the base will rise into the surface. Convection currents will last until the entire body of water is 0 degrees C, at which point all the water eventually freezes. If the water is hot, cooled water at the base is thicker than the warm water on top, therefore no convection will happen and the base part begins freezing while the top is still warm. This effect, together with the evaporation effect, may create hot water freeze faster than cold water in some cases. In this case, naturally, the freezer will probably have worked harder throughout the specified time period, extracting more heat from warm water.”
Robert Ehrlich of George Mason University, in Fairfax, Va., adds to some of the points made by Takahashi:
“There are two methods by which warm water could freeze faster than cold water. 1 way [described in Jearl Walker’s book The Flying Circus of Physics (Wiley, 1975)] depends on the fact that warm water disappears faster, so that if you started with equal masses of hot and cold water, there would soon be of the warm water to freeze, and hence it might overtake the chilly water and freeze first, because the lower the bulk, the shorter the freezing time. The other way it may occur (in the event of a flat-bottomed dish of water placed in a freezer) is if the hot water melts the ice below the bottom of the dish, then resulting in a better thermal contact when it refreezes.”

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